Draft constitutional charter for the 2019 transitional. The status of south sudans 2018 peace agreement south. Comprehensive peace agreement project, does not bode well for the chances of avoiding new decades of conflict and the countries continued impoverishment. The war that the government of sudan and the sudan s people liberation movementarmy splama recently ended, erupted in 1983, following the breakdown of the 1972 addis ababa agreement. This paper analyses the comprehensive peace agreement cpa signed. The 9 january signing of the comprehensive peace agreement between the government of the sudan and the sudan peoples liberation movement was a historic moment of great opportunity for the. The comprehensive peace agreement cpa between the government of sudan gos and the sudan peoples liberation movementarmy splma signed on the 9th january of 2005 formally ended one of the longest and highly violent armed conflicts in africa. Even though south sudan s civil war ended a year ago, women and girls in south sudan continue to experience some of the highest levels of genderbased violence around the world. The negotiation of security issues in sudans comprehensive peace agreement 3.
Comprehensive peace agreement the conflict between the north and the south erupted one year before sudan gained its independence in 1955. Failed peace agreement and establishment of the sudan r epublic of s udan 11 s eptember 2012 the main text of this coi report contains the most up to. Evaluating sudans comprehensive peace agreement 2005, uppsala. After a long process of peace negotiations, which started only three years after the outbreak of the second civil war in sudan in 1983, a comprehensive peace agreement cpa was signed on january 9, 2005 between the government of sudan gos and the sudan. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate sudans comprehensive. In respect of the southern sudan, there shall be a government of southern sudan goss, as per the borders of 1156, which shall consist of.
African union archives, the comprehensive peace agreement cpa about the author. It analyses how local, national and international dynamics around independence in july 2011 and the end of the sixandahalfyear formal comprehensive. This report explores trajectories of violence in sudan and south sudan after the signature of peace agreements. Featuring contributions from different sides of sudan s conflicts, this accord examines who was excluded from the peace process and suggests how future initiatives could be more inclusive. Institutional developments and political trends in focus areas samson s. In september 2018, salva kiir, the president of south sudan, and his major adversary, the former vicepresident and rebel leader riek machar, signed yet another peace agreement in addis ababa, the ethiopian capital.
Conflict analysis and options for systemic conflict. Small arms and armed violence in sudan and south sudan. Pdf the comprehensive peace agreement and the dynamics. All signs suggest that the transition from greater sudan to the republics of sudan and south sudan is not the end of a conflict but rather the beginning of multiple new ones. Peace agreements can be turning points in complex transitions from war to peace. Peace and conflict assessment of south sudan 2012 5 executive summary this report is an assessment of peace, conflict and peacebuilding in south sudan, conducted between june 2011 and march 2012. Agreement on the reunification of the sudan peoples liberation movement arusha agreement. South sudans high level revitalization forum united. Wassara phd1 introduction the sudan is a vast and varied country in terms of its geography and people, defining its social and political relations from the colonial era through independence. The comprehensive peace agreement between the government of the republic of the sudan and the sudan peoples liberation movement sudan peoples liberation army report from government of sudan. Comprehensive peace agreement for all but 11 of the 48 years since its independence in 1956, sudan has been engulfed in civil conflict. Chapeau of the comprehensive peace agreement whereas the government of the republic of the sudan gos and the sudan peoples liberation movement sudan peoples liberation army splma.
Convinced of the urgent need for a comprehensive agreement that will finally bring peace and security to the people of darfur. The sudan comprehensive peace agreement cpa is one of the rare achievements not only in the sudan but indeed in africa as it offers a unique resolution of one of the most complicated and protracted civil wars in africa. Background to conflict, khartoum, khartoum university press, 1970, pp. The sudan is a vast and varied country in terms of its geography and people, defining its social and political relations from the colonial era through independence. After a long process of peace negotiations the comprehensive peace agreement cpa was signed on 9 january 2005 between the government of sudan gos and the sudan peoples liberation movement. The comprehensive peace agreement and its aftermath. Accepting the immediate need to bring an end to the tragic conflict ongoing in the republic of south sudan since 15 december 20, which has had such disastrous economic, political and. The sudan comprehensive peace agreement was signed by leaders of both parties on 9 january 2005. The conflict between the north and the south erupted one year before sudan gained its independence in 1955. More than 2 million people have died in southern sudan over the past two.
Power sharing signed at naivasha, kenya on 26th may, 2004 part iii. Comprehensive peace agreement between the government of. The long road ahead executive summary and recommendations more than a year after it was signed, sudans comprehensive peace agreement cpa is showing signs of strain. The sdsr shall undertake a comprehensive assessment of the requirements of south sudan s national army within one hundred and twenty 120 days from the signing of this agreement to inform the formulation of the countrys defense and security policies that shall subsequently lead to the overall security sector transformation sst process. Suwareh darbo, principal country economist and messrs kenneth onyango, principal. The cpa was meant to end the second sudanese civil war, develop democratic governance countrywide, and share. The signing of the comprehensive peace agreement cpa was seen as a new era for sudan, but the country has many interwoven conflicts that cant be solved through a single agreement. The comprehensive peace agreement between the government. Ali othman taha, first vicepresident of the sudan, said that during the security councils meeting in nairobi last year, he had declared his governments determination to complete negotiations and arrive at a comprehensive peace agreement by the end of the year. Sudan since the 2005 comprehensive peace agreement. Comprehensive peace agreement opened an opportunity to turn the devastation of more than 20 years of the most recent stage of the longer civil war into a new era of peace and prosperity.
There are talks that the eastern front a merger between beja. Affirming the sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of the sudan. Government of the republic of sudangovernment of sudan. By setting forth a timetable for elections, the 2005 comprehensive peace agreement cpa seeks to give sudanese citizens significantly more control in how their country is governed. The dispute was not resolved until april 20 after protracted negotiations. The hlrf is mandated by the intergovernmental authority on development igad to reinforce the 2015 agreement on the resolution of the conflict in south sudan.
While the agreement ended one of africas longest and bloodiest civil wars, it was an agreement. This peace brief offers recommendations for the international community in anticipation of the launch of the high level revitalization forum hlrf in south sudan. The deadline for the approval of the cpa was 24 january 2005 for the splm national liberation council. South sudan president salva kiir signs peace deal bbc news. Comprehensive peace agreement between the government of sudan and the splmspla with annexes download select language. It was only in 2005 that the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement cpa officially ended the. After a long process of peace negotiations the comprehensive peace agreement cpa was signed on 9 january 2005 between the government of sudan gos and the sudan people s liberation movementarmy splma. Committed to achieving enduring peace and stability in the republic of south sudan. South sudan president salva kiir has signed a peace deal with rebels more than a week after refusing to do so, at a ceremony in the capital juba attended by african regional leaders. A sixyear interim period dated from 9 july 2005 is established during which the southern sudanese will have the right to govern affairs in their region and participate equitably in the national government.
In december 20, a conflict between government forces and rebel factions led to a civil war in south sudan. Comprehensive peace agreement between the government of liberia and the liberians united for reconcilation and democracy lurd and the movement for democracy in liberia model and political parties accra, august 18, 2003 table of contents text of the agreement annex 1. The usual practice is for federations to combine both the coercive and the. Sudan comprehensive peace agreement peace accords matrix.
Kamara with the assistance of the task manager, mr. The challenges of sustaining peace and transforming sudan the national islamic front nif is too deformed to be reformed by dr. Western kordofan and southern kordofan merged in accordance with the decree. Featuring contributions from different sides of sudan s conflicts, this accord examines who was excluded from the peace process and suggests how future. However, the cpa election clock is ticking and neither the.
The negotiation of security issues in sudans comprehensive. Comprehensive peace agreement cpa 2005, with particular relevan ce to powersharing. While the 2005 comprehensive peace agreement brought new hope for southern sudan, many barriers remain to the agreement s successful implementation three years onas recently illustrated by. South sudan president signs peace deal with rebels news. Sudan s ali osman mohamed taha and sudan peoples liberation movement leader john garang laugh before the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement in. Is sudan on a tenuous path towards peace, and stability, or has the peace agreement fragmented to the point where a return to civil war is inevitable. But peace in southern sudan remains fragile, with governance and rule of law structures in need of strengthening sudan s comprehensive peace agreement.
Pdf after the comprehensive peace agreement in sudan. That agreement was signed on 9 january of this year. It offers a unique mechanism for resolving issues of religious diversity and setting a new basis for national unity based on the free will of the people. Since gaining its independence in 1956, sudan has been among the african countries which have. After the comprehensive peace agreement in sudan on jstor. Agreement on ceasefire and cessation of hostilities between the government. The crisis in darfur and status of the northsouth peace agreement congressional research service summary sudan, geographically the largest country in africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. Why the previous peace agreements failed to bring peace to. South sudan s leaders signed a renewed peace agreement in september 2018. In this policy brief, we assess the implementation progress on the agreed reforms through the first six months.770 597 68 1491 417 1141 873 1409 518 163 151 223 340 1012 1247 1180 278 449 618 590 1036 1068 1492 1377 1097 454 1153 1219 34 24 1192 220 515 1