The importance of autophagy in the host defense against infection is underscored by. Macroautophagy, or sensu stricto autophagy, is a cytoplasmic quality and quantity control process whereby cytoplasmic components are sequestered into double membrane organelles termed autophagosomes and delivered for degradation and elimination to lysosomes fig. Explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including. Autophagy is a protective and lifesustaining process in which cytoplasmic components are packaged into doublemembrane vesicles and targeted to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy and inflammation clinical and translational. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response edition 1. Chaperonemediated autophagy cma is involved in transportation of specific cytosolic. Being an essential regulatory component of the immune system in these cells, autophagy not only mediates pathogen clearance and cytokine production, but also balances the immune response by preventing harmful overreaction. Introductory chapters ground the reader by laying out the autophagic pathway from a cellular perspective, and listing assays available for measuring autophagy. Cancer, other pathologies, inflammation, immunity, infection, and aging, volume 6 m. The relationship between infection and immunity and autophagy, a pathway of cellular homeostasis and stress response, has been a rapidly growing field of study over the last decade. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response edited by william t.
The role of autophagy in cutaneous malignant melanoma is discussed in detail and. However, the outcomes of autophagy lap in shaping host immune responses appear to greatly vary depending on fungal species and cell types. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response kindle edition by william t. Wang kai,zheng yang,xing yaling regulation of viral infection and immune response by autophagy j. The scope of autophagy and its associated processes of chaperonemediated autophagy. Autophagy in immune responses to viruses autophagy. The relationship between autophagy and the immune system and its. Autophagy and lap in the fight against fungal infections. Pathogen recognition receptor mediatedsignaling in hcv infection. This process of cellular selfdigestion is an essential stress response and is cytoprotective by removing damaged organelles and proteins that threaten the cells survival. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response wiley. Pdf autophagy, inflammation and innate immunity in. In general, these three cellular biological processes are always understood as an immune defense response initiated by the organism after perceiving a pathogen infection.
Autophagy, infection, and the immune response provides a unified overview of the roles of cellular autophagy during microbial infection. In addition, several cytokines and reactive oxygen species ros that are released during the immune response to infection have been found to trigger the autophagic process 5, 7, 8. A tight correlation between autophagy and innate immunity in myopathic muscles compared to controls was highlighted by confocal microscopy. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response wiley online books.
A large body of evidence indicates that autophagy plays important roles in the regulation of innate immune responses to viral infections, including hcv. Molecular interactions of autophagy with the immune system. Autophagy acts as an immune effector that mediates pathogen clearance. Tfeb and tfe3 cooperate in the regulation of the innate. Conversely, autophagy contributes to the delivery of pamps to endosomal prrs indicating a bidirectional relationship between autophagy and innate immune receptors. In response to infection, the host must activate those arms of the innate and adaptive immune system including autophagy dependent functions. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response 1, william t. Requirement of autophagy proteins beclin1 and map1lc3b. Stressors ranging from nutrient deprivation to immune signaling can induce the degradation of cytoplasmic material by a process known as autophagy. Hcvinfected hepatocytes release viral rna in exosomes that are transferred to neighboring pdc cells to trigger an innate immune response, implying the role of crosslinking of different cell types in generating an effective immune response following virus infection dreux et al. However, autophagy during viral infection is not merely a passive process. Hepatitis c virus infection, autophagy, and innate immune. Cancer, other pathologies, inflammation, immunity, infection, and aging, volume 8.
Innate immune cells are the doorkeepers in the immune system and are important for the initiation of protective vaccine responses against infection. There is growing evidence showing that various host cellular responses, including autophagy, innate immunity, and apoptosis, are affected or activated by hcv in vitro 24, 25, 42 44. We refer to it by name as autophagy and by function as a defined cell. In general, autophagy of adcs under viral infection or malignant transformation can significantly promote the antigen phagocytosis and presentation ability of antigenpresenting cells, suggesting that pharmacological induction of autophagy may be a strategy to activate anticancer immune responses. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Introductory chapters ground the reader by delineating the autophagic pathway from a cellular perspective, and by listing assays available for measuring autophagy. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response 1st editio. Autophagy may play multiple roles within this response, both as an effector of cytokinevitamin ddirected killing mechanisms and as a modulator of cytokine secretion fig.
As clearance of cytoplasmic components is a major function of autophagy, the innate immune system activates autophagy. In animals, this cellautonomous defense mechanism also facilitates the recognition of infected cells by innate immune effectors, especially when. Autophagy is a complex process in which cell homeostasis of proteins, organelles, exocitic and endocitic vacuoles are controlled. Considerable evidence now exists of a role for autophagy in immune responses to numerous pathogenic microorganisms, including mycobacterium tuberculosis mtb 9,10. Increasingly, research on autophagy has begun to focus on its role in inflammation and the immune response. Once infected with salmonella, autophagy can be induced rapidly which plays a pivotal role in the elimination of bacteria and the process of autophagy can even affect the following innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens gomes and dikic, 2014.
Get ebooks autophagy in immune response impact on cancer immunotherapy on pdf, epub, tuebl, mobi and audiobook for free. Regulation of viral infection and immune response by autophagy. Requirement of autophagy proteins beclin1 and map1lc3b in the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection by michelle reed a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy immunology in the university of michigan 2014 doctoral committee. Role of autophagy in bacterial infections and immune responses. Here, we aimed to investigate the autophagic response upon hcv jfh1 infection and its regulatory role in virus replication in a condition that mimics natural viral. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading autophagy, infection, and the immune response. Hepatitis c virusinduced autophagy and host innate immune. In addition, autophagy can generate viral peptides susceptible to presentation by molecules of the major histocompatibility system to the antigen receptor of t lymphocytes and, therefore, contribute to induction of an appropriate antiviral adaptive immune response. There is a direct link between autophagy and cell death with antigen processing, generation of inflammatory response and. Hayat introduction 2 specific functions of autophagy a summary introduction4 autophagy in normal mammalian cells overview of the insulinamino acidmtor 4 endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy 5.
Home internal medicine autophagy, infection, and the immune response 1st editio. In response to various viral infections, autophagy modulates innate and adaptive immune responses via regulation of immune cell differentiation, survival, phagocytosis, antigen presentation. Host cell autophagy in immune response to zoonotic infections. Autophagy and endoexosomal pathways are intertwined in a highly intricate manner. The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity.
Induction of autophagy can potentially promote the immune system 11, 12. In animals, this cellautonomous defense mechanism also facilitates the recognition of infected cells by innate immune effectors, especially when infection leads to cell death galluzzi et al. Autophagy is a cellular process for the disposal of damaged organelles, denatured proteins as well as invaded pathogens through a lysosomal degradation pathway. An explanation is given how autophagy is closely linked to control of innate and adaptive immune responses in host defense in part by regulating cytokine production. Autophagy during viral infection a doubleedged sword. Frontiers targeting autophagy in innate immune cells. We refer to it by name as autophagy and by function as a defined cell biological pathway that depends on specialized atg factors box 1. Autophagy in infection, inflammation, and immunity ncbi. Hepatitis c virus infection, autophagy, and innate immune response. Activation of the unfolded protein response and autophagy. Autophagy and ubiquitination in salmonella infection and. Here, we discuss the hostintrinsic regulation of autophagy in the course of cellular immune responses and examine how autophagy impacts 1 adcs, whose phenotypic andor behavioral features are modified upon infection or oncogenic mutations. Always update books hourly, if not looking, search in the book search column.
Chinese journal of biochemistry and molecular biol, 2011, 2711. Pdf autophagy is an intracellular homeostatic mechanism important for the degradation. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response ebook, 2015. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy.
Autophagy induction, along with activation of other innate immune responses, represents the first line of defense during pathogen infections. Autophagy and cellular immune responses sciencedirect. Impact on cancer immunotherapy focuses on the status and future directions of autophagy with respect to different aspects of its interaction with the immune system and immunotherapy. While some cellular processes are pro or anti infection, autophagy has been proven to be both a part of the innate immune response against some microbes and a cellular pathway subverted by some pathogens to promote their own replication. It was demonstrated to be activated during starvation or other stress response, including hypoxia, reactive oxygen species, dna damage, protein aggregates, damaged organelles or intracellular pathogens. The relationship between infection and immunity and autophagy, a pathway of cellular homeostasis and stress response, has been a rapidly. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response download. Autophagy, infection, and the immune response hardcover. Hayat 1 introduction 2 specific functions of autophagy a summary 4 autophagy in normal mammalian cells 4 endoplasmic reticulum. Cancer, other pathologies, inflammation, immunity, infection, and aging, volume 5 m. The roles of autophagy bridge both the innate and adaptive immune. Role of autophagy in bacterial infections and immune responses j. There are more than 1 million books that have been enjoyed by people from all over the world.292 737 1061 1388 1317 568 577 1323 1505 896 108 313 266 1086 962 527 679 1342 492 163 426 84 105 648 846 258 388 1192 6 617 1120 637 517 596 912 1170 463 430 564 1051 5